DLR Commissions Airbus to Develop the Payload and Payload Ground Segment for MERLIN – The First Franco-German Earth Observation Satellite
(Source: Airbus; issued Feb 17, 2017)
OTTOBRUNN, Germany --- Airbus Defence and Space, the world’s second largest space company, has signed a contract with Space Administration at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) to develop and build all components of the German contribution to the German-French Earth observation mission MERLIN.
The German Aerospace Center and the French space agency Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) are jointly developing this challenging mission on behalf of the French and German governments. With this step, Europe’s two largest space-faring nations have resolved to seek a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that influence Earth’s climate.
As the industrial prime contractor on the German side, Airbus in Ottobrunn, near Munich, was commissioned by DLR to develop the payload and the payload ground segment. As the industrial prime contractor for CNES, Airbus in Toulouse is responsible for the overall system, the satellite platform and integration of the instrument.
“By developing MERLIN through DLR and CNES, France and Germany are making an important contribution to better understanding the causes of climate change,” said Dr Michael Menking, Head of Earth Observation, Navigation and Science at Airbus Defence and Space.
Starting in 2021, MERLIN (MEthane Remote sensing LIdar missioN) will deploy a LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) instrument to monitor the methane content in Earth’s atmosphere from an altitude of around 500 kilometres, and additionally make possible the first-ever global map of concentrations of this critical greenhouse gas.
Highly precise global measurement and mapping of methane concentrations in the atmosphere is only possible from space, as it requires continuous, large-area observation. Key areas such as tropical wetlands, rain forests and sub-Arctic regions are extremely difficult to survey without satellites.
To date, the methane concentration in the atmosphere has been measured from Earth observation satellites that use solely “passive” instruments. These utilise the sunlight scattered by the Earth’s surface to determine the content of trace gases (such as methane) in the atmosphere. They depend on daylight and only produce optimum results when skies are clear.
The MERLIN mission will be the first to use an “active” LIDAR instrument developed in Germany. It is equipped with an on-board light source (the laser) and can thus measure at night and even through thin cirrus clouds. The instrument emits two short light pulses at two slightly different wavelengths. As one wavelength is absorbed by the methane and the other is not, this difference between the two back-scattered signals can be measured and the methane concentration can be determined with unprecedented precision.
With the aid of data on wind speeds and directions, scientists around the world will be able to convert these values into global methane flow maps and determine the actual regional effects of methane. A better understanding of the global methane cycle is urgently needed in order to reliably predict changes in climate and pursue effective climate protection.
Airbus Defence and Space Wins 200 Million Euros ESA Contract for Second Service Module for NASA’s Orion Crewed Space Capsule
(Source: Airbus Defence and Space; issued Feb 16, 2017)
BREMEN --- Airbus Defence and Space, the world’s second largest space company, has signed a new contract with the European Space Agency (ESA) for the construction of the second European service module (ESM) for NASA’s Orion spacecraft. The contract is worth around 200 million euros. The ESM is a key element of Orion, the next-generation spacecraft that will take astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for the first time since the end of the Apollo programme.
The module provides propulsion, power and thermal control and will supply astronauts with water and oxygen on their missions beyond the Moon to more distant destinations such as Mars. The ESM is installed underneath the crew module. ESA selected Airbus Defence and Space as prime contractor for the development and construction of the first ESM in November 2014.
“With this follow-on contract, we are highly motivated to continue supporting NASA’s pioneering deep space mission. This confirms how much confidence our customers ESA and NASA, as well as our industrial partner Lockheed Martin Space Systems, have in our expertise and competence – trust that they already placed in us for the development and construction of the first European service module,” said Nicolas Chamussy, Head of Space Systems. “We deliver reliable, state-of-the-art products and through this programme and our continual investments, we can secure a technological advantage.”
More than 20,000 parts and components will be installed in the ESM flight model, from electrical equipment to rocket engines, solar panels, fuel tanks and life support materials, as well as hundreds of metres of cables and tubes. The integration of the first flight model has been in full flow since May 2016 and the start of the integration of the second flight model has been planned for the middle of next year.
The second test flight of the Orion spacecraft and the first flight with NASA’s Space Launch System rocket is known as Exploration Mission 1. This mission will be uncrewed and will take the spacecraft more than 64,000 kilometres beyond the Moon in order to demonstrate the performance of the spacecraft. The first crewed mission – Exploration Mission 2 – will take place as early as 2021.
The design of the Orion spacecraft enables astronauts to be transported farther into space than ever before. The spacecraft transports the crew into space, enables an emergency abort and provides life support for the crew during the flight and a safe return to the Earth’s atmosphere, even at extremely high re-entry speeds from the depths of space. With planned missions beyond the Moon including to an asteroid redirected to the lunar orbit, NASA is building capabilities to send humans to Mars and ushering in a new era of space research is beginning.
The ESM is a cylinder with a height and diameter of around four metres. Like the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), it has a distinctive four-wing solar array (19 metres across when unfurled) that generates enough energy to power two households. The service module’s 8.6 tonnes of fuel can power one main engine and 32 smaller thrusters. In total, the ESM weighs just over 13 tonnes. In addition to its function as the main propulsion system for the Orion spacecraft, the ESM will be responsible for orbital maneuvering and position control. It also provides the crew with the central elements of life support like water and oxygen, and regulates thermal control while it is docked to the crew module. Furthermore, the unpressurised service module can be used to carry additional payload.
For the development and construction of the ESM, Airbus Defence and Space can draw on its extensive experience as prime contractor for ESA’s unmanned ATV, which provided the crew on board the International Space Station with regular deliveries of testing equipment, spare parts, food, air and water as well as fuel.
Airbus is a global leader in aeronautics, space and related services. In 2015, it generated revenues of €64.5 billion and employed a workforce of around 136,600. Airbus offers the most comprehensive range of passenger airliners from 100 to more than 600 seats. Airbus is also a European leader providing tanker, combat, transport and mission aircraft, as well as Europe’s number one space enterprise and the world’s second largest space business. In helicopters, Airbus provides the most efficient civil and military rotorcraft solutions worldwide.