The Chinese leadership views the hybrid warfare battlespace very differently than Western leaders. For Beijing, the struggle against the United States and its allies has been underway for a considerable time; political warfare or united front operations have reached into the West’s homelands, and hybrid warfare campaigns have been underway in key theaters for several years. China is experienced in these operations and accords them high priority.
By contrast, most decision-makers in the West still consider themselves to be in a state of “peace,” are not inclined to initiate actions that they fear Beijing may consider provocative, and possess political and hybrid warfare arsenals that are weak at best, poorly organized and grossly under-resourced. Until recently, the deterrence and defeat of Chinese hybrid warfare campaigns received very limited attention.
This report examines Beijing’s hybrid warfare campaigns, their origins, means and modes, level of success, and possible future shape. It also assesses the primary options for U.S. and allied counterstrategy.
Click here for the full report (92 PDF pages), on the CSBA website.