The head of Britain's Armed Forces says Russia's subversive tactics pose the biggest 'threat to our way of life since the end of the Cold War.'
Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) General Sir Nick Carter urged air chiefs from around the world to adapt for modern threats, or risk being defeated.
Speaking at the 2018 Chief of Air Staff’s Air Power Conference in London to senior figures from government, the military and business on the threats nations currently face, he said the previous clear-cut lines between war and peace are blurred.
The CDS described Russia as "probably the most complex and capable state-based threat to our way of life since the end of the Cold War".
He urged the RAF to stay ahead of the curve and embrace working with industry in order to develop air and space technology: "Fail to change now and our adversaries, slowly but surely, will overcome us."
The Director of Joint Warfare, Air Vice Marshal Bruce Hedley looked even further into the future:
"In the next 100 years I can't envisage where we'll be, but it'll be totally different.
"There is no doubt that we'll be talking about astronauts. We'll be out of this heavier than airspace, and into outer space.
"I'm sure we'll be looking at new civilisations...that's not too far to dream."