Carrier Strike – Preparing for Deployment
(Source: UK National Audit Office; issued June 26, 2020)
Today the National Audit Office (NAO) reports that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) needs to focus on developing crucial supporting elements to make full use of Carrier Strike, as well as develop a better understanding of how much it will cost in the future.

Carrier Strike describes the ability to launch fixed-wing aircraft from a ship to undertake a range of military tasks. The carriers will allow the MoD to respond to conflicts and engage in humanitarian relief efforts anywhere in the world at short notice. It is based around the two Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carriers – the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy – and Lightning jets.

The MoD has built the two new carriers in line with its timetable and for 3% above the budget, both of which it agreed in 2013. It has so far taken delivery of 18 Lightning jets.

Carrier Strike is planned to reach its ‘initial operating capability’ by December 2020. The MoD expects to meet this date, although it will not have the full level of radar capability that it expected (Emphasis added throughout—Ed.) at this point. The timetable for it to develop ‘full operating capability’ by 2023 remains tight.

The new airborne radar system (Crowsnest) – which is a key part of Carrier Strike’s protection – is 18 months late. This will affect Carrier Strike’s capabilities for its first two years of operation. The delay has been caused by a subcontractor, Thales, failing to meet its contractual commitments for developing equipment and not providing sufficient information on the project’s progress. Neither MoD nor its prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, were aware of these problems until it was too late, reflecting MoD’s ineffective oversight of its contract with Lockheed Martin.2

Meg Hillier, chairman of the Commons’ Public Accounts Committee, which follows the work of the NAO, told the Portsmouth News that “The Ministry of Defence has lofty ambitions for the carriers but hasn't put its money where its mouth is. Worryingly, it still doesn't know the full cost of supporting and operating carrier strike.

“It must now ensure that the three front-line commands involved sing from the same hymn sheet. Otherwise, the Royal Navy will be stuck with a hollowed-out capability and unable to satisfy expectations.”


The MoD has made slow progress developing three new support ships, which are crucial to Carrier Strike’s operation. It has only one ship able to resupply the carriers with the supplies they need, such as ammunition and food. The MoD has long been aware that this will restrict Carrier Strike, and the cancellation of a recent competition to build new supply ships – because of concerns over value for money – mean they will not be available until the late 2020s.

The MoD will incur additional costs while it keeps the current ship in operation longer than intended.

The MoD is intending to buy 138 Lightning jets in total, which will help sustain Carrier Strike operations for the next 40 years. It has ordered 48 jets but has not yet committed to buying more. It has also deferred receipt of seven of the jets to 2025, a year later than planned, because of financial pressures. Since the NAO last reported in 2017, the approved cost of the Lightning project has increased by 15% from £9.1 billion to £10.5 billion because of additional expenditure on system upgrades, integration of UK weapons and sustainment costs. The MoD is planning to review the number and types of jets it needs, but buying fewer aircraft would affect how Carrier Strike can be used.

The MoD does not know how much Carrier Strike will cost over its life. For example, it is yet to make important decisions on the enhancement of the capability over the longer-term, such as how to replace or extend the Merlin helicopters. The NAO recommends that the MoD improves its understanding of the costs of running, supporting and enhancing Carrier Strike over its lifetime. The MoD may not have made sufficient provision in later years’ budgets for the full costs of Carrier Strike.

“The MoD has made good progress with the big-ticket items needed to deliver Carrier Strike, such as the carriers, the first squadron of jets and the new infrastructure. But it must pay much greater attention to the supporting capabilities needed to make full use of Carrier Strike.

“The MoD also needs to get a firmer grip on the future costs of Carrier Strike. By failing to understand their full extent, it risks adding to the financial strain on a defence budget that is already unaffordable,” said Gareth Davies, the head of the NAO.

Background Notes
-- ‘Initial operating capability’ is the minimum level at which the capability or service is usefully deployable. In the case of Carrier Strike, it is a single, trained Lightning squadron (12 jets), able to embark on a joint warfighting mission with appropriate support and maritime protection. ‘Full operating capability’ is the level of military capability which is intended for a particular project.

-- In November 2016, the MoD agreed a fixed price contract with Lockheed Martin to deliver the Crowsnest project. Thales and Leonardo Helicopters were appointed as the sub-contractors.

-- The NAO has previously reported on the Carrier Strike in 2017, 2013, November 2011 and July 2011.


The National Audit Office (NAO) scrutinises public spending for Parliament and is independent of government and the civil service. It helps Parliament hold government to account and it use its insights to help people who manage and govern public bodies improve public services. The Comptroller and Auditor General (C&AG), Gareth Davies, is an Officer of the House of Commons and leads the NAO.


Click here for the full report (61 PDF pages), on the NAO website.

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Carrier Strike – Preparing for Deployment
(Source: UK National Audit Office; issued June 26, 2020)
This report examines the MoD's management of the programme since 2017 and the risks towards achieving Carrier Strike's full capabilities.

Background to the report

Carrier Strike provides the ability to launch fixed-wing aircraft from a ship to undertake a range of military tasks. It is central to the government’s plans for the country’s armed forces and the first step towards Carrier Enabled Power Projection (CEPP), which is the government’s ambition to be able to respond to conflicts and support humanitarian relief efforts anywhere in the world at short notice.

Carrier Strike will be based around two Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carriers – the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy – together with Lightning II jets, which are being bought through the United States Department of Defense’s international programme. The Ministry of Defence (the Department) is also buying a new airborne radar system, Crowsnest, to help protect a carrier strike group. Depending on the type of deployment, the carriers will be accompanied by at least one destroyer, an anti‑submarine warfare frigate, and ships for support and resupply.

Content and scope of the report

Since 2011, we have reported four times on the Department’s progress on Carrier Strike. Our early reports covered the decisions about the type of carrier and jets that the Department bought. In 2017, we highlighted that the phase to 2020 would be crucial and there was little room for manoeuvre in the delivery schedule.

In this report, we examine how the Department has managed the programme since 2017 and how it is addressing the risks towards achieving the full capabilities of a carrier strike group. We set out:

-- the background to Carrier Strike and what the Department has achieved since we last reported (Part One);

-- the Department’s progress in managing the elements of the programme that are still needed to provide the full Carrier Strike capabilities (Part Two); and

-- how the Department is addressing the challenges to achieving its ambitions for Carrier Strike (Part Three).

Our report focuses on the Department’s approach to addressing the risks to achieving the capabilities of Carrier Strike. We do not evaluate the military or wider capabilities that Carrier Strike will provide, or the plans for its operational use.

Report conclusions

Since we last reported, the Department has received two new aircraft carriers into service, now has 18 Lightning II jets and has developed much of the UK infrastructure to support them. It has delivered the carriers for £6.4 billion, which is just 3% above the revised figure announced to Parliament in 2013. The Department has conducted successful sea trials and is working closely with the US to be ready for its first joint deployment in 2021. It has also established plans for using Carrier Strike in its early years.

The Department is, however, making slower progress in developing the crucial supporting activities that are needed to make full use of a carrier strike group, such as the Crowsnest radar system and the ability to resupply the carriers.

In addition, it has not established a clear view on the future cost of enhancing, operating and supporting Carrier Strike, which creates the risk of future affordability pressures.

The Department will not achieve value for money from its investment to date unless:

-- it provides clarity on its future ambitions;
-- develops its understanding of future development and operating costs; and
-- ensures cross-command coherence and collaboration to develop the full capabilities of Carrier Strike.

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